kinds of testing should be considered?
Black box testing - not based
on any knowledge of internal design or code. Tests are
based on requirements and functionality.
White box testing - based
on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's
code. Tests are based on coverage of code statements,
branches, paths, conditions.
Unit testing - the most 'micro' scale of testing;
to test particular functions or code modules. Typically
done by the programmer and not by testers, as it requires
detailed knowledge of the internal program design and
code. Not always easily done unless the application
has a well-designed architecture with tight code; may
require developing test driver modules or test harnesses.
Incremental integration testing
- continuous testing of an application as new functionality
is added; requires that various aspects of an application's
functionality be independent enough to work separately
before all parts of the program are completed, or that
test drivers be developed as needed; done by programmers
or by testers.
Integration testing - testing of combined parts of an
application to determine if they function together correctly.
The 'parts' can be code modules, individual applications,
client and server applications on a network, etc. This
type of testing is especially relevant to client/server
and distributed systems.
Functional testing - black-box type testing geared
to functional requirements of an application; this type
of testing should be done by testers. This doesn't mean
that the programmers shouldn't check that their code
works before releasing it (which of course applies to
any stage of testing.)
System testing - black-box type testing that
is based on overall requirements specifications; covers
all combined parts of a system.
End-to-end testing - similar
to system testing; the 'macro' end of the test scale;
involves testing of a complete application environment
in a situation that mimics real-world use, such as interacting
with a database, using network communications, or interacting
with other hardware, applications, or systems if appropriate.
Sanity testing - typically an initial testing
effort to determine if a new software version is performing
well enough to accept it for a major testing effort.
For example, if the new software is crashing systems
every 5 minutes, bogging down systems to a crawl, or
destroying databases, the software may not be in a 'sane'
enough condition to warrant further testing in its current
Regression testing - re-testing after fixes or
modifications of the software or its environment. It
can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is
needed, especially near the end of the development cycle.
Automated testing tools can be especially useful for
this type of testing.
Acceptance testing - final testing based on specifications
of the end-user or customer, or based on use by end-users/customers
over some limited period of time.
Load testing - testing an
application under heavy loads, such as testing of a
web site under a range of loads to determine at what
point the system's response time degrades or fails.
Stress testing - term often
used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing.
Also used to describe such tests as system functional
testing while under unusually heavy loads, heavy repetition
of certain actions or inputs, input of large numerical
values, large complex queries to a database system,
Performance testing - term
often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load'
testing. Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other
'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation
or QA or Test Plans.
Usability testing - testing
for 'user-friendliness'. Clearly this is subjective,
and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer.
User interviews, surveys, video recording of user sessions,
and other techniques can be used. Programmers and testers
are usually not appropriate as usability testers.
Install/Uninstall testing - testing of full,
partial, or upgrade install/uninstall processes.
Recovery testing - testing how well a system recovers
from crashes, hardware failures, or other catastrophic
Security testing - testing how well the system
protects against unauthorized internal or external access,
willful damage, etc; may require sophisticated testing
Compatibility testing - testing
how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating
Acceptance testing - determining
if software is satisfactory to a customer.
Comparison testing - comparing
software weaknesses and strengths to competing products.
Alpha testing - testing of
an application when development is nearing completion;
minor design changes may still be made as a result of
such testing. Typically done by end-users or others,
not by programmers or testers.
Beta testing - testing when
development and testing are essentially completed and
final bugs and problems need to be found before final
release. Typically done by end-users or others, not
by programmers or testers.